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Urine, produced by the kidneys, is stored in the urinary bladder before exiting the body through the urethra. The urethra acts as a channel for urine excretion; its length offers protection against infection. Dogs with repeated or persistent urinary tract infections or inflammation need to be evaluated for an underlying cause, such as stones in the urinary bladder, prostatic disease (males), and cancer. Dogs with bladder inflammation strain to urinate; they may have obvious blood in their urine. An inability to urinate (posture to urinate and nothing comes out) requires emergency treatment to relieve the painful obstruction.